The Case for Small Government

A Libertarian Perspective on Economic and Social Policy

March 27, 2006

Drug Re-Importation

According to a recent story in the Boston Globe, the U.S. government has stepped up enforcement of a law that prevents re-importation of prescription drugs. Many U.S. residents purchase drugs abroad, especially from Canada, to take advantage of lower prices.

This law is misguided.

If drug manufacturers are losing money due to re-importation, they can raise their prices abroad or lower them here. If price controls in other countries prevent higher prices, the manufacturers can refuse to sell there.

U.S. patent laws protect U.S. manufacturers from infringement of their patents. And U.S. laws against fraud protect manufacturers and consumers from fake medicines. The ban on re-importation, however, applies even to drugs that are legally sold abroad, and even when U.S. customers have valid prescriptions.

The justification for banning re-importation is therefore weak. The law is difficult to enforce, so evasion is successful much of the time. The people who suffer most are low-income U.S. citizens who obey the law.


At 8:51 PM, Blogger LP Mike Sylvester said...

The justification to not allow Americans to buy prescription drugs from overseas is not weak; it is non-existent.

Our government is catering to the drug company's, period...

Mike Sylvester

At 12:04 AM, Blogger Slagothor said...

The effectiveness of any third-degree price-discrimination scheme hinges upon the ability of the seller to effectively segregate the different categories of demanders.

In a monopoly, price discrimination can be effective in recovering some of the deadweight loss of monopoly. Thus, rendering the discrimination untenable results in this loss being reinstated. As a result, American consumers pay a little less, but the drop in profit to the drug company will be larger than the welfare gain to the consumers.

So if you support drug re-importation, you are arguing for a solution that reduces efficiency but enhances equity (depending upon one's assumption about who owns drug company stock.) I'm a bit surprised to see such a stance coming from a self-described libertarian.

If we must have a monopoly (and most would agree with the aggregate welfare benefits of having a patent system, which necessitates the creation of monopolies) then price discrimination is the only way of recovering the deadweight loss of that monopoly.

Of course, the price discrimination is only made possible because of international borders and different laws in different counties. As a true liberal internatonalist, I stand against the concept of international borders, so maybe I am with you...

At 6:37 AM, Blogger James said...

"In a monopoly, price discrimination can be effective in recovering some of the deadweight loss of monopoly."

This is nonsense.

At 7:09 AM, Blogger Slagothor said...

Please expand upon your comment, James. I'd like to hear a slightly more complete exposition.

At 7:34 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

The article states the official purpose of enforcement is public safety from unsafe drugs, not protection for U.S. drug cos.

Interesting that the professor and the readers of this blog seem to dismiss the offical purpose of the law, public safety, as not even worthy of comment.

At 7:45 AM, Blogger Slagothor said...

Well, since we're talking about drugs made in the US that are identical to those made for US consumption being shipped to Canada and then shipped back over the border with their security packaging intact, it is hard to pay any heed to the "safety" strawman.

At 7:49 AM, Blogger James said...


Recovering a deadweight loss of any kind would require that some new *net* welfare gain be created. Price discrimination is a means by which a producer is able to extract welfare from what would would otherwise be a consumer surplus. It doesn't create any new welfare gain, just a transfer and in some cases an additional loss.

At 8:21 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

"and most would agree with the aggregate welfare benefits of having a patent system, which necessitates the creation of monopolies"

One wonders how the drug industry would look without patents. Would innovation actually slow? Might patents themselves hinder development, stopping cos. from advancing the work of others?

At 1:20 PM, Blogger Slagothor said...

James: there is a difference between the quantity produced in a monopoly and in a perfectly competitive market. With full and perfect price discrimination the quantity produced is the same as the competitve market, and thus the deadweight loss of monopoly is recovered. It's all recovered by the seller, but it's still recovered.

Yes, price discrimination transfers consumer surplus to producers, but that does not reflect any aggregate welfare change, just a change in the distribution. And given the broadly held nature of the drug comapnies (and ownership by pension plans, etc.) it isn't like that wealth is all going to monocle and top-hat wearing Park Avenue plutocrats.

At 2:36 PM, Blogger Greg Mankiw said...

Jeff: Does your libertarian perspective allow the government to enforce private contracts? Yes, I think it does. So imagine that drug companies sold inexpensive drugs to Canada with the contract provision that they not be resold to the United States. You would then say that the government should help the drug companies enforce that contract. But isn't that in effect what the ban on reimportation does? So perhaps you can justify it as a part of the governmental job of enforcing private contracts.

At 3:36 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I believe that the argument made by lp mike sylvester is dead on. There is no justification for preventing Americans to buy prescription drugs from overseas. The government is catering to the drug companies who are among the strongest corruptors, (I mean lobbying forces) in the US Congress.

Perhaps with truly free trade in this area, their profits would be reduced enough to make it uneconomic for them to spend all the money they do on advertising drugs that we don't need. Doctors should be the source of information for their patients, not expensive television advertisements.

At 3:43 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Greg:...or the US gov could spend their money on other things, leaving drug companies to themselves. This would presumably result in higher Canadian prices, which would put pressure on the Canadian gov (a large purchaser of drugs) to finance the enforcement of a ban on drug exports. This seems like a good deal for Americans. Up to now, Canadian drug prices have been subsidized by American enforcement of this price discrimination.

At 8:24 PM, Blogger MM said...

It seems to me that foreign governments achieve their low cost for drugs at least in some part through an implicit threat to break the patent if they don't like the price. Thus, companies that invent new drugs don't have the choice not to sell into foreign markets; they have a choice between selling into foreign markets at cost-plus, or having the Canadian government void their patent and allow cheap generics to be manufactured, which (I assume) under your system would then enter the American market at low prices.

At 1:28 PM, Blogger daublin said...

Jeffrey, surely as a "Harvard Uniersity Economist" you are aware that US drug companies cannot legally increase their costs in Canada? If Canada had a free drug market then, yes, all the re-importation issue would be much less important. However, it does not.

The real issue is whether we want patents at all. Anonymous from 8:12pm is on the right track. With the author's proposal, patents become so weakened that they may as well exist. (And as an aside, why does the author not mention this? It's central to the issue.) If we ever decide that drug re-importation should be allowed, then logically we should procede further and abolish drug patents altogether. Drug patents plus reimportation simply means a lot of paperwork.

I think drug patents are a pretty good system. For a couple of decades after coming up with a new drug, a company can charge as much as they want. After that, the drug can be made generically. This seems like a good balance of promoting development and distributing goods.

In addition, the system does work. Most new drugs come from the United States. If we kill the patent system, then there will be a few years of cheap, good drugs but then the development will probably decline sharply. Is that a reasonable risk? I think not. We should vigorously defend new drug research, and suck it up for the <20 year period after each new drug comes out. Are we a country that can think that far ahead? We have been so far....

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At 7:57 PM, Blogger James said...


"With full and perfect price discrimination the quantity produced is the same as the competitve market, and thus the deadweight loss of monopoly is recovered."

What? In a competitive market, the producer acts as a price taker, producing an output where marginal cost equals quantity demanded.

With (even perfect) price discrimination, the seller faces multiple markets and charges the monopoly price in each.

Besides, none of your explanation shows how price discrimination can recover the deadweight loss from a monopoly. As you write, "Yes, price discrimination transfers consumer surplus to producers, but that does not reflect any aggregate welfare change, just a change in the distribution."

How can a change in distribution recover a deadweight loss?

Frankly, if you are right, your case should be the easier one to make. I'm saying that price discrimination cannot possibly recover the deadweight losses of a monopoly. Impossibility claims are easy to refute; it just takes a counterexample. Give me a system of equations for total cost as a function of quantity and two or more demand curves such that if the producer maximizes profit, the quantity out output equals the quantity that would be produced under perfect competition.

At 5:26 AM, Blogger Slagothor said...

James: here is the simplest example I can think of:

1) Let demand is specified by P = 1-Q.

2) Assume the seller can costlessly produce, so MC = 0.

In a competitive market, P = 0, Q = 1, consumer surplus = 0.5, producer surplus = 0, aggregate welfare = 0.5.

If the same market were a monopoly, then we get MR = 1-2Q, and setting MR=MC gives us an equlibrium Q = 0.5, P = 0.5. Consumer surplus = 0.125, producer surplus = 0.25, aggregate welfare = 0.375 and therefore the deadweight loss to monopoly will be 0.125.

OK. Now assume that the seller can sell to each buyer at the buyer's reservation price. So the first buyer will be willing to pay 1, the median buyer will be willing to pay 0.5, the 75th percentile buyer will be willing to pay 0.25, and so on. In this case, the total quantity sold will be 1, and the entire area under the demand curve will be captured. The only difference from the perfect competition case is that it is now the seller, and not the buyer who has captured all the wealth. Perfect price discrimination has enabled the market to recapture the deadweight loss. Society, as a whole, is better off - the only difference is in the distribution (not the amount) of wealth created by this market.

This is a lot easier to explain with diagrams. If you ca, take a look at Mankiw's intro microeconomics book, as it is simply and elegantly shown in a diagram there.

I don't want to be snippy, but if you've takan a first course in microeconomics, this should be pretty obvious to you.

At 10:27 AM, Blogger James said...


You don't need to be snippy at all. Your clarity of exposition goes much further. Neither my first nor my subsequent micro courses really dealt with the situation you describe. Micro is a big field and you get what the prof is interested in. I got mostly game theory, EU, IO, public goods valuation and some applied econometrics. At any rate, I appreciate the correction.

At 2:36 PM, Blogger daublin said...

"If drug manufacturers are losing money due to re-importation, they can raise their prices abroad or lower them here. If price controls in other countries prevent higher prices, the manufacturers can refuse to sell there."

Ah, I apologize for reading too quickly. Indeed, you point out the issue of foreign price controls.

It is not clear whether there is a net benefit or loss in the scenario where the trade barrier is dropped and US companies stop selling in, e.g., Canada. But it does not appear catastrophic, I grant you.

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