The Case for Small Government

A Libertarian Perspective on Economic and Social Policy

April 18, 2006

Oil Prices and "Gouging"

As oil prices surpass $70 per barrel and gasoline prices near $3 per gallon, calls for government to stop “profiteering” and “price gouging” are again on the rise. President Bush, for example, stated Tuesday that “the government has the responsibility to make sure that we watch very carefully and investigate possible price-gouging, and we will do just that.” Similarly, the two Democratic Senators from New Jersey, Frank Lautenberg and Bob Menendez, called Monday for the administration to crackdown on price gouging and hold oil companies accountable for rising gas prices.

Anti-gouging and anti-profiteering efforts, however, are misguided. Without question oil producers gain when prices rise. And these gains look like windfalls, since producers do not incur exploration costs when they sell additional units of existing supplies.

But policies that limit prices and profits have two large negatives. These policies reduce the incentive for consumers to economize on energy use, and they reduce the incentive for producers to discover new supplies or bring marginal reserves on line. Thus, government limits on prices and profits mean more expensive oil and gas in the long term.

Scapegoating oil producers might be good politics, but it is bad economics. As in medicine, primum non nocere; first, do no harm.

55 Comments:

At 12:30 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I have never seen a more lame attempt to justify what is tantamount to gouging. Simply put at lower price levels, oil companies still do research and exploration. They have to - they are dependent on providing a supply of oil for their continued existence. Secondly, consumer usage doesn't have to start with high oil prices, rather it requires a shift in how consumers view oil and by having a viable alternative. For someone who claims to have a Harvard education - this is a poor argument.

 
At 6:57 AM, Blogger Mike Huben said...

There are two problems, both of which Miron omits.

The supply of crude oil is being reduced by the OPEC cartel. More than 20 years of their periodic price gouging has not resulted in anything that drops the price of oil, despite claims of incentives. No new technologies, no vast new oil fields.

Refinery capacity is extremely closely matched to a rather inelastic demand. Relatively minor outages cause large price fluctuations. If these outages are deliberate (as Enron's electric generation outages were), they represent inefficient and unjust market manipulation.

There are better ways to provide incentives for concumers to economize, as the electric industry has shown with numerous government-fostered programs to foster energy efficient appliances and lighting. That's far better than enduring price gouging.

New supplies just aren't to be found, and marginal reserves won't be brought on line simply because the fluctating prices make them too risky.

Once again, the libertarian solution is "suffer": we can obviously do better than that.

 
At 9:46 AM, Blogger smilerz said...

Mike, you are simply wrong.

"No new technologies, no vast new oil fields."

The oil sands in Alberta are viable because the price of oil has risen.

Additionally, the vast oil reserves of Venezuala is only viable at higher prices of oil.

The technology to harvest these reserves are only viable because there is an monetary incentive to invest in extraction.

The actual profit margins of oil companies are not out of line with any other industry. The absolute dollar amount is high because there are few companies and very few refining fascilities.

As a side note: Enron didn't own any electric generation, so they couldn't have deliberately shut down prodcution.

 
At 10:18 AM, Anonymous Josh said...

Governmental price fixing would be a great obstacle to alternative energy sources. When consumers do not take the brunt of higher gas prices there's no incentive to reduce consumption and/or explore alternatives.

 
At 11:02 AM, Blogger Chris said...

Additionally, in a recent article in Regulation, it was pointed out that the diversification of oil products has made it more difficult to just make more "gas". Different states and nations now have differing standards and it makes things a bit more complicated.

Also, what about the tariffs on petroleum and gasoline?

 
At 11:03 AM, Anonymous eric said...

Yes once again government threatens to make a solution worse than the problem.

When a financial transaction takes place it is always beneficial to both parties.

Why is it I wonder that the big mean oil companies weren't doing any price gouging in the 80's or the 90's or last year? They all got together and decided to do it today. I think these critics are really just conspiracy theorists.

Mike, do you really think that we can reduce oil demand enough to get price stability with energy saving toasters? I think that not many people would agree

These gouging people are scary. The government gets to take your property just because you are doing well? Discrimination against the rich. The majority abusing the minority. If we had a law saying black people should give their money to white people, everyone would freak out.

 
At 1:39 PM, Blogger KipEsquire said...

Based on gross margins, Procter & Gamble and Coca-Cola are far more "evil" companies that commit far more "price gouging" than any oil company.

 
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At 8:37 PM, Anonymous KenH said...

I didn't hear people complaining or asking the governmment to save the oil companies in the mid-80s and late-90s when the price of oil crashed to $10/bbl. and oil companies were reducing their workforce and freezing salaries.

The oil companies trimmed back and weathered the bad times. That is a major reason why oil companies are reticent to go on a spending binge with the price at $70/bbl. They are afraid it will crash again by the time new production that they find now would be coming on line. And since oil is a commodity - it probably will crash again.

 
At 10:35 PM, Blogger Mike said...

The supply of crude oil is being reduced by the OPEC cartel. More than 20 years of their periodic price gouging has not resulted in anything that drops the price of oil, despite claims of incentives. No new technologies, no vast new oil fields.

Who said anything about dropping the price of oil? Thats not the point. What ever gave you that idea?

The point is that the price of oil naturally rises. It is not going to start decreasing. And without proof that some deliberate action to artificially raise prices exists, we shouldn't be surprised when the price goes up. And its a good thing that they are rising.

 
At 8:58 AM, Blogger smilerz said...

The point is that the price of oil naturally rises. It is not going to start decreasing.

That's not true, oil prices drop all the time. Oil still hasn't reached it's peak from the late 70s. The major contributor to high prices now is the instability in the Middle East, with higher demand being only part of the picture.

 
At 7:12 AM, Blogger Eric H said...

KenH said, "I didn't hear people complaining or asking the governmment to save the oil companies in the mid-80s and late-90s when the price of oil crashed to $10/bbl. and oil companies were reducing their workforce and freezing salaries."

Actually, that's not true. When oil prices collapsed in 1997 (or round thereabout), then-Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson started calling for relief to the oil-producing communities (and companies), there were discussions about propping up the price with European-style taxes, and later, when Jeffords defected and the Dems took over the Energy committee, they proposed a rebate to oil companies when oil fell below $15/bbl I think it was. I can only guess that these were prompted by complaints by someone, though it probably wasn't consumers.

 
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naszego polskiego zainteresowania. Jezeli wiec kochamy jednego z spedytorow w najwiekszym stopniu na wspolczesnym rynku, owo kiedy w najwiekszym stopniu mozemy sobie pozwolic na przejazd sposrod jego udzialem, dlatego ze bedzie nas wichrzyc sie na tego rodzaju perspektywe do asortymentu

 
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