The Case for Small Government

A Libertarian Perspective on Economic and Social Policy

March 10, 2006

Recycling, Unions, and Affirmative Action

What do recycling, unions, and affirmative action have in common?

One might think the answer is, “Libertarians oppose them all.” But that answer is not correct.

Libertarians have no objection to recycling per se. If private markets recycle voluntarily because it is profitable to do so, that is desirable because it represents an efficient use of society’s resources. What libertarians oppose is government policies that mandate recycling.

Libertarians have no objection to unions per se. If employees wish to form voluntary organizations and attempt to bargain collectively with employers, that is their privilege. Indeed, this approach might benefit everyone by reducing the “transactions costs” of negotiating employment contracts. What libertarians oppose is government policies that force employers to bargain collectively with unions.

Libertarians have no objection to affirmative action per se. If companies believe a diverse work force is good for the bottom line, or if companies wish to promote minorities and women because they believe it is right, that is their business. Indeed, many libertarians believe diversity is valuable and therefore support certain kinds of private affirmative action. What libertarians oppose is government policies that mandate affirmative action in hiring and related activities.

Whether the libertarian positions on recycling, unions, and affirmative action are persuasive is a question for future blogs. The point here is that libertarianism distinguishes between whether something is good or bad and whether government policy should encourage or discourage that something.

194 Comments:

At 10:14 PM, Blogger Marc Shivers said...

Certainly one can't have a serious discussion about the government's role in any of these issues without first taking a detailed look at the externalies involved. Correct me if I'm wrong, but it seems to me that, under the libertarian view, that's pretty much all that matters. I think that will be an easy sell for recycling, but not very convincing for the other two topics.

 
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At 2:09 PM, Blogger Bob Schubring said...

It is unfortunate that so much libertarian philosophy is written by economists rather than by ethicists. It has been observed that nearly everyone, in principle, favors world peace. That position changes, for many people, if one asks instead, "What would you be willing to spend, to achieve world peace?" The foundation of peace is justice, and justice can only prevail when all parties to a transaction agree to its terms. Yet, politicians and bureaucrats make a business of awarding unearned benefits to their backers, and inflicting unwanted costs upon others to pay for those benefits. When this injustice builds to an intolerable level, warfare is often the result. Thus, to guarantee world peace, the people of the world would have to agree to pay a fair and mutually agreeable price for the things they buy. Failing that, conflict is inevitable.

With that background, let us now examine affirmative action.

Affirmative action over racial matters, when coerced by politicians and bureaucrats, has the perverse result of de-stabilizing society and encouraging racism. Ostensibly the public good is somehow served by denying a better-qualified white male a job and awarding that job to a less-qualified member of a minority group ... or at least, that was Richard Nixon’s contention when he imposed compulsory affirmative action programs by executive order. Yet, this creates the perception that all members of the racial minority attained their present standing by racial preference alone, and not by their own merits. (To be absolutely clear, it should also be noted that racial discrimination in the past has largely caused many members of racial minorities to lack exposure to formal education and to informal opportunities for skills development, which in turn has resulted in a shortage of skilled and educated minority workers). As a result, the white majority continue to suspect everyone they encounter, who might have benefitted from coerced affirmative action programs, of being less than fully competent at their duties. Thus, coerced affirmative action has created the outward appearance of a racially diverse society, but has not fundamentally changed the reality of racial prejudice. Worse yet, those whites who enjoy a close working relationship with a member of a racial minority and understand what that person contributes to their organization, are likely to trust that particular minority member on his or her own merits, as the person’s talents are observed on a daily basis. When encountering minority members outside their organization, many whites distrust a stranger’s ability, for he or she may simply hold a position as a token minority member, and have limited skills or decision-making authority. As a result, we remain at a great distance from Martin Luther King’s dream of a color-blind society that judges a person “upon the content of his character”.
So where did we go wrong? We certainly cannot right the wrong of black slavery, anti-Chinese laws, and official discrimination against Mexican-Americans and Native Americans. The individuals who were victimized by those laws now occupy cemeteries. Causing harm to innocent people who weren’t born at the time of these past injustices simply transfers injustice from victim to victim, without doing anything to remedy the problem. We can and must address the problem of racial minority members being miseducated in the government schools. It does no one any good for a prestigious university to admit students from a dysfunctional high school, who obtained a diploma but read at third-grade level, and keep them on campus a semester to fill a racial quota that was set by Richard Nixon in an executive order, in order to qualify for federal funds. The proper approach is to make available to the miseducated student a remedial education that gets him or her ready for college. Moreover, we need to quit subsidizing government schools that miseducate their students.

The University of Detroit Mercy, a Jesuit institution in the heart of Detroit’s ghetto, has operated a very successful program for miseducated students whom the government schools have failed. The very key to its’ success has been to start by showing students that they lack an adequate foundation in skills that should have been mastered in elementary school or high school, but were never taught, and then go through a rigorous program of remedial education for as many as five years, before admitting these students to the University. The result has been to increase minority graduation rates, as the University is admitting minority students with the intent of educating them, rather than to meet an arbitrary quota by loading the freshman class with unqualified students whom it flunks after a semester or two. More importantly, the individuals who have attended the program are now well-positioned to assume the responsibilities of an educated professional.
This voluntary form of affirmative action, driven by a religious conviction that the poor should be helped, is highly successful for precisely the same reason that compulsory affirmative action has failed. Because the University of Detroit Mercy’s program is voluntary, it is run by people who want it to succeed in educating disadvantaged minority students. In contrast, affirmative action programs that operate for the sole purpose of obeying the Nixon edict, simply follow the letter of the edict by recruiting enough minority members to meet their quotas.

 
At 9:32 PM, Blogger Mike Huben said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

 
At 9:33 PM, Blogger Mike Huben said...

It's sad to see so much anti-affirmative action propaganda.

Myth: Affirmative action denies jobs to the most qualified.

 
At 5:23 AM, Blogger Bob Schubring said...

Mike Huben quotes:
Fact: All recipients of affirmative action are qualified by definition.

Which simply raises another question. By whose definition are the recipients defined to be qualified? In the narrow contexts of assembly line manufacturing jobs or police/military work, the qualifications are rather minimal and easily defined.

As we move further away from repetitive, easily-definable tasks and closed skillsets, into today's information economy, it becomes increasingly difficult to define the qualifications necessary for achievement, and the candidate most likely to be hired to perform a task is the candidate who shows the most interest in it. The notion that working relationships are voluntary decisions by people to associate together is anathema to Nixonian statists, but in the world of startup and growth businesses, is nevertheless a fact of life. In point of fact, IBM can get away with affirmative action mandates because it is such a desirable employer that minority members are beating on the door to come to work there...not to mention that to be critical of the affirmative action policy puts all those wondrous federal contracts that pay Big Blue its costs plus a guaranteed profit, in jeopardy.

The bottom line issue is how qualifications are to be decided. Must we defer to politicians and bureacrats to define for us who is qualified to do a task for us? Nixon says yea, I say nay. Meanwhile, jobs continue to exit the US for China at a tremendous rate. Curiously, China has no legal definition of property rights...but does allow for people who try to organize labor unions without official permission, to be shot dead for their kidneys. It's hardly a libertarian-friendly place, but then again, neither is the U.S.

 
At 1:36 PM, Blogger Ananda said...

Topic for other discussion: when was it, exactly, that Mike Huben jumped the shark? I don't remember the one article he posted on his "Critiques of Libertarianism" page that made it clear he no longer took himself or his opponents seriously, but I think it was about six or seven years ago.

 
At 1:52 PM, Blogger Ananda said...

Oh, and just for the record, Mike's link is to a lefty propaganda site. The author patiently explains to us that affirmative action recipients are "qualified by definition", and that they are hired pursuant to "flexible goals, to be reached in good faith."

The APA paper cited by the author, "Affirmative Action: Who Benefits?", promptly contradicts this statement, telling us that a type of program "commonly in use" is called a "set-aside":

"More recently, some affirmative action laws and regulations have involved the use of preferential treatment, privilege, and set asides to achieve workforce diversity."

Moreover, the 1995 Pratkanis & Turner study he cites (or rather plagiarizes, since he just copy/pasted a bullet list from the APA "Who Benefits" paper), is explicitly centered on affirmative action policies that did NOT include set-asides, race-norming, or any of the other policies the APA tells us are commonly in use.

It is very common on the internet nowadays for a person writing an article to cite another paper, to give the impression that the cited paper supports his view, when in fact it undermines it. It's especially common among creationists and, apparently, among Mike Huben's preferred references.

 
At 4:10 PM, Blogger Mike Huben said...

Bob wrote: "Must we defer to politicians and bureacrats to define for us who is qualified to do a task for us? Nixon says yea, I say nay."

Who makes hiring decisions in companies? Workers? No, corporate politicians and bureaucrats. But because they're private, they should be free to exercise whatever bigotry they choose?

Bob says: "Which simply raises another question. By whose definition are the recipients defined to be qualified?" The answer to that is not the definition of racists. If anything, corporate America should be grateful for affirmative action simply because it forces a real look at qualifications, rather than letting racists pick inferior candidates based on their prejudices. It also provides political cover for integration: cover against racists who would otherwise attempt to discriminate against firms that first integrate voluntarily.

 
At 4:35 PM, Blogger Mike Huben said...

Ananda quotes from Affirmative Action: Who Benefits?, which was referenced by the site I linked to.

But he misrepresents it. Yes, the paper says AA is called set-asides: when it is discussing public misperceptions. A classic quotation out of context. And it is a fact that there are some set-asides, as the paper admits: but that is not the whole of affirmative action. Instead, if Ananda had read a little beforehand:

"Affirmative action is not a quota system, which would be illegal in the United States. The only exception is when a judge orders a quota on a company that has been found guilty of extreme or blatant discrimination in employment."

He also accuses the quoted site of plagiarism, but evidently doesn't understand the meaning of the term, since the source is cited.

Those are the closest to substantial points Ananda makes: the rest is tarbrushing, name calling, and ad hominem. I suspect that most libertarians don't notice these problems reading Anada: it's standard operating procedure among ideologues.

 
At 8:51 PM, Blogger James said...

From the site Mike links to:

Myth: Affirmative action denies jobs to the most qualified.

Fact: All recipients of affirmative action are qualified by definition.

Trouble is, the so-called fact does not imply the falsity of the 'myth'. You can play with Venn diagrams and see that the fact could be true and the myth could go either way.

Call A the set of job applicants. Call R the set of AA recipients and J the set of applicants who get jobs whether because of AA or not. Call Q the set of all qualified applicants and Call M the set of most qualified applicants. R is a subset of J is a subset of A. M is a subset of Q.

Mike's fact is only that R is a subset of Q. Ok.

The myth it supposed to refute is that M is not a subset of J.

Affirmative action may not have the effect claimed, but it takes a better argument.

 
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